VEGANISM AND CALCIUM LOSS
STUDY: Long-term vegetarian diet and bone mineral density in postmenopausal
JOURNAL: Calcif Tissue Int 1997 Mar;60(3):245-9
AUTHORS: Chiu JF, Lan SJ, Yang CY, Wang PW, Yao WJ, Su LH, Hsieh CC.
ABSTRACT: This study examined bone density among postmenopausal Buddhist nuns
and female religious followers of Buddhism in southern Taiwan and related the
measurements to subjects characteristics including age, body mass, physical
activity, nutrient intake, and vegetarian practice.
A total of 258
postmenopausal Taiwanese vegetarian women participated in the study. Lumbar
spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using
dual-photon absorptimetry. BMD measurements were analyzed first as
quantitative outcomes in multiple regression analyses and next as indicators
of osteopenia status in logistic regression analyses.
Among the independent
variables examined, age inversely and body mass index positively correlated
with both the spine and femoral neck BMD measurements. They were also
significant predictors of the osteopenia status. Energy intake from protein
was a significant correlate of lumbar spine BMD only.
including calcium and energy intake from nonprotein sources, did not
correlate significantly with the two bone density parameters. Long-term
practitioners of vegan vegetarian were found to be at a higher risk of
exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95%
confidence interval = 1.03-5.96) and of being classified as having osteopenia
of the femoral neck (3.94, 1.21-12.82).
Identification of effective nutrition
supplements may be necessary to improve BMD levels and to reduce the risk of
osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians.
Intl J of Cancer, 5/02
Theory is 'Eat Right 4 Your
Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 1999
Br J Nutr 10/01
Iron Cookware Provides Minerals to Vegetarians
Am J Clin Nutr, 9/02
Weight Reduction NOT Major Reason for Improvement: Veggie Diet
LINK to nutritional information
Nutr & Cancer, 12/03
Raw versus Cooked Vegetables in Cancer Prevention
Am J Clin Nutr, 7/03
Vegetarians and Colorectal Cancer Incidence
LINK:Reports from veterans of vegetarian and raw-food diets,
veganism/fruitarianism/instinctive eating & new science
from paleolithic diet res & clin nutr.
LINK to Vegetarian statement
LINK to source for newsletter,
LINK to article by Reed Mangels, PhD, RD
Vegetarian Resource Group
Cancer Epid Biomar & Prevent,
Higher IQ makes child more likely to be a vegetarian by 30
2008 Study Vegetarians Live Longer
Ecology of Food & Nutrition, 5-6/05
Am J Cardiol, 2/06
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