ABSTRACT: Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer: A Case-Control
Study from Scandinavia
[08/13/2001; Acta Oncologica]
We report a population-based case-control study on risk
factors for male breast cancer. Data on a broad range of previously
suggested risk factors were collected in a set of Scandinavian
breast cancer cases and matched controls.
Incident cases (n =
282) with histologically verified carcinomas of the breast were
identified from notification to the cancer registries of Denmark,
Norway and Sweden over a 4-year period 1987-1991 and of these
cases, 156 men could be approached and responded. Controls were
identified through national central population registers and
were matched individually for country, sex and year of birth.
Controls with a diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded; 468
of 780 controls responded. Data on risk factors were collected
by self-administered questionnaires mailed to the cases between
1and 2 years after diagnosis and to controls during the same
The findings were compatible with an increased risk associated
with family history of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3,
95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-5.6), obesity 10 years before
diagnosis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) for BMI > 30, diabetes
(OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.3) and the use of digoxin and methyldopa
(OR = 2.0 and 2.1, respectively). The association with family
history of breast cancer has been repeated in several studies,
while the relation to anthropometric measures has been equivocal.
We could not substantiate some associations seen in other studies;
namely those with high education, fertility, marital status,
testicular injury, liver disease and religion. The detailed questions
about gynaecomastia indicated that many cases reported signs
of breast cancer as a gynaecomastia.
This type of misunderstanding
may explain the strong association with gynaecomastia seen in
other studies. Several patients died before contact.
factors related to a more aggressive male breast cancer or related
to high risk of dying (e.g. liver cirrhosis, heavy smoking)
may have been missed.
Euro J Cancer Prevention, 8/02
Euro J of Cancer Prevention, 2/02
J Clin Endocrinology & Metab, 8/04
Euro J Cancer Prevention, 4/05
Breast Cancer Research, January 2007
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