Prostate carcinoma among men with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Nancy F. Crum, M.D., M.P.H. 1 *§, Craig R. Spencer, M.D. 2, Christopher L. Amling, M.D. 2
1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California
2Department of Urology, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California
email: Nancy F. Crum (email@example.com)
*Correspondence to Nancy F. Crum, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Investigation, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, San Diego, CA 92134-5000
Several malignancies are known to occur more frequently in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To determine the incidence of prostate carcinoma in men with HIV infection, the authors initiated a prostate carcinoma screening program in a large HIV clinic.
Beginning in February 2002, monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and digital rectal examination (DRE) were included in the routine annual health maintenance provided to men with HIV infection age 35 years who were followed in the infectious disease clinic at the Naval Medical Center San Diego.
All men with prostate carcinoma in this population over the last 2 years were reviewed. Demographic data (age, ethnicity), duration of HIV infection, laboratory values (CD4 counts and HIV viral load), and medication use were determined by medical record review.
Men with elevated PSA levels (levels above age-adjusted PSA values or PSA velocity 0.75 ng/mL per year) or abnormal DRE results were referred for urologic evaluation. Comparisons between groups were performed using a logistic regression model and the Fisher exact test.
Multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression to determine relations between prostate carcinoma and patient characteristics.
Two hundred sixty-nine men age 35 years (mean age, 43.4 years; range, 35-72years) underwent prostate carcinoma screening by DRE, and 216 men also received PSA testing. Overall, 56.3% of the patients were white, 28.7% were African American, and 15% were of other racial ethnicity.
Of the 216 men, 7 (3.2%) had elevated PSA values, and none had abnormal DRE results.
Three patients were diagnosed with prostatitis (PSA range, 3.3-25.7 ng/mL), and 1 patient had high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, which was determined after a biopsy was performed. Repeat PSA evaluations were within normal limits for the remaining three patients.
Review of the cohort during the 2-year period before the current study was initiated revealed 5 additional cases of prostate neoplasia. Prostate carcinoma was common (4 of 11 men, 36.4%) in men age > 60 years and occurred with relatively preserved CD4 counts (mean, 509 cells/mm3).
In multivariate analysis, African-American race (P = 0.020) and duration of HIV infection (P = 0.047) were found to be associated with the development of prostate carcinoma.
Prostate carcinoma screening identified abnormal PSA values in 3.2% of the HIV-positive cohort, many associated with prostatitis. Prostate carcinoma was common in older men and was associated with duration of HIV infection.
As the life expectancy of men with HIV infection increases, prostate carcinoma screening will become increasingly important in this population.
Volume 101, Issue 2 , Pages 294 - 299
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