Progress in breast cancer chemoprevention (Excerpts)
B Arun & G N Hortobagyi
Retinoids represent a promising group of agents for the prevention of breast cancer. Fenretinide, a synthetic amide of retinoic acid, induces apoptosis through mechanisms partly involving the retinoid receptors Torrisi et al. 2001) and has been extensively studied (Brown & Lippman 2000). In in vivo models, fenretineide prevented the development of N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced brest cancer in rats (Moon et al. 1979).
Recently, fenretinide was also shown to decrease plasma IGF-1 levels in early brest cancer patients, suggesting it spotentially chemopreventive effects (Torrisis et al. 1998). Indeed, in a recent large phase III trial, fenretinide use was associated with a reduction of second breast malignancies in premenopausal women with a history of previous breast ancer (Veronesi et al. 1999).
The rexinoid LGD 1069 was shown to be effective against established carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors (Gottardis et al. 1996); in another study, LGD 169 prevented the development of mammary tumors in the N-mitroso-N-methylurea-induced rat in mammary carcinoma model (Bischoff et al. 1998) and could be considered for chemoprevention.
Several other agents are considered for the chemoprevention of breast cancer, including the monoterpens limonene and perillyl alcohol. The proposed anti-tumor and preventive mechanism includes the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and the inhibition of posttranslational modification of proteins that are involved in signal transduction and in increasing the expression of IGF-IIR (Gould 1995), a putative breast tumor suppressor gene (Oates et al. 1998).
Perillyl alcohol is currently under clinical phase I testing (Ripple et al. 1998).
The isoflavone, ganistein which is found in high concentrations in soybeans and soy products, inhibits estradiol synthesis by inhibiting aromatase , inhibits DNA topoisomerase and the expression of DNA transcription factors c-fos and and c-jun and is currently under clinical trial (Wang & Chen 1994, Barnes 1997).
Endocrine-related Cancer, 3/02
Volume 9, Issue 1 pages 15-32
Biomarkers & Prevention,
Cancer Causes and Control, 12/02
Cancer Epid Bio & Preve, 11/03
Environ Mol Mutagen, 3/02
|Remember we are NOT Doctors and have NO medical training.|
This site is like an Encyclopedia - there are many pages, many links on many topics.
Support our work with any size DONATION - see left side of any page - for how to donate. You can help raise awareness of CAM.