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While smoking poses a health threat to both men and women, women require less tobacco exposure than men to have a significant increased risk for colorectal cancer, according to new research presented at the 73rd Annual ACG Scientific Meeting in Orlando. In a separate analysis, researchers found smoking may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions, particularly in patients with a strong family history of the disease.
While research has demonstrated that smoking is associated with a two-fold risk for colorectal neoplasia, less is known about the exposure quantity needed. Joseph C. Anderson, M.D., of the University of Connecticut in Farmington and Zvi A. Alpern, M.D. of Stony Brook University in New York compared the quantity of tobacco exposure to increased colorectal cancer risk in men and women. The levels of tobacco exposure were measured by multiplying the packs of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years smoked (“pack years.”)
Cigarette Smoking May Increase Risk of Pancreatic Cancer Precursor Lesions in At-Risk Patients
In a separate study conducted at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, Dr. Emmy Ludwig and her colleagues examined tobacco exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer
Source: American College of Gastroenterology
Nicotine from even second-hand cigarette smoke may stimulate breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression by interacting with receptors in tissue to signal cell growth and migration, laboratory studies here suggested.
In malignant and breast epithelial cells, exposure to nicotine enhanced the activity of a tumor-promoting enzyme and stimulated the cells' mobility, Chang Yan Chen, M.D., Ph.D., of Harvard, and colleagues reported in the Oct. 15 issue of Cancer Research.
The studies also identified a cell division cycle gene that appears to play a key role in nicotine-mediated cell migration.
Moreover, the data suggest a possible mechanism by which second-hand smoking may lead to tumorigenesis
Guo J, et al "Nicotine promotes mammary tumor migration via a signaling cascade involving proein kinase C and cdc42" Cancer Res 2008; 68: 8473-8481.
June 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Second-hand Smoke
Surgeon General's report on secondhand smoke makes the following points:
The scientific evidence is indisputable that secondhand smoke causes premature death and serious diseases in both adults and children who do not smoke.
Secondhand smoke is a proven cause of lung cancer and heart disease in nonsmoking adults and of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), low birth weight, acute respiratory infections ear infections and asthma attacks in infants and children. It is responsible for tens of thousands of deaths in the U.S. each year.
There is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke.
Exposure to secondhand smoke has substantial and immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.
The only effective way to protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke is to require smoke-free workplaces and public places.
Separating smokers from nonsmokers in the same air space, cleaning the air and ventilating buildings are not effective at eliminating exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smoke.
Smoke-free policies and regulations do not have an adverse economic impact on the hospitality industry.
While we have made progress in reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, more than 126 million nonsmokers in the U.S. are still exposed to secondhand smoke in workplaces and homes.
Secondhand smoke contains more than 50 carcinogens.
The extent to which workplaces are covered by smoke-free policies varies among worker groups, across states, and by sociodemographic factors. Workplaces related to the entertainment and hospitality industries have notably high potential for secondhand smoke exposure.
It is time we ask smokers NOT to stand in front of our buildings where that secondhand smoke lingers and places the rest of us in danger.
9/04 NEWS & VIEWS
2004 SURGEON GENERAL’S REPORT LINKS MORE CANCERS TO SMOKING from the CA Cancer J Clin 2004; 54:243-244:
"The 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on the Health Consequences of Smoking states that smoking has been conclusively linked to acute myeloid leukemia and cancers of the cervix, kidney, pancreas, and stomach. Smoking is now also known to cause pneumonia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cataracts, and periodontitis. "
If your husband (sic, partner) smokes you're probably at no higher risk for breast cancer than women with nonsmoking spouses, a new study says. (Read that as life partner/spouse)
The findings fly in the face of previous research that said women living with secondhand smoke got more breast cancer.
But the results also may not hold for women married (partnered) before the age of 20, the researchers say. The study suggests that younger women, with still developing breast tissue, may be less able to repair secondhand smoke damage, resulting in an increased risk.
"What we found, overall, was there was no association being married (partnered) to a smoker, or exposed in some other context to environmental tobacco smoke, and an increased risk of breast cancer mortality," says Daniel Wartenberg, a professor at Rutgers University's Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute in Piscataway, N.J. "Previous studies had suggested some association, and we were interested in knowing whether younger women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke had higher rates of breast cancer mortality."
The association between secondhand smoke and breast cancer puzzled researchers, since studies of women who smoked did not link the habit to the disease. How, then, could secondhand smoke, with its lower smoke exposure, cause breast cancer?
"There's logic to it in younger women," Wartenberg explains. "The breast tissue is still developing very rapidly and when that's happening, if there is some insult to the tissue, then the way the body mechanisms repair the damage is just not rapid enough. In older women, since the rate of tissue growth is slower, the mechanisms for tissue repair can react."
To explore the contradiction, Wartenberg and his colleagues used data from a 1982 American Cancer Society study of about 1.2 million American men and women. Selecting about 147,000 nonsmoking women, the researchers determined how much secondhand smoke they were exposed to by using responses to a questionnaire filled out by both the women and the smoker-husbands. "That gave us a much more active understanding of how much environmental tobacco smoke was around," Wartenberg says.
Small rise for very young women
Twelve years later, 669 of the women had died from breast cancer. But that rate did not differ significantly when compared to women married to nonsmokers, current smokers or former smokers. The number of packs smoked by the spouse or the number of years he smoked also did not statistically increase the risk for breast cancer.
But for women under 20, Wartenberg says they found a small "but not statistically significant increase in risk for breast cancer mortality. That's something we suggest should be more carefully studied," he adds.
The findings appear in the latest Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
By Neil Sherman
Int J Cancer, Feb, 2001
Smoking Cessation & Survival Advantage:Bca
Smoking Assoc w/Postmeno BCa when High Estrogen Levels
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Journal,
Smoking is Risk Factor:Healing/infection
Chest, J of Am College of Chest Physicians,
Vitamin E and C Synergistic w/Beta-carotene in Smokers
Lung CA Risk Higher W/Previous BCA
British Endocrine Societies meeting,
Long Latency Period/Higher Risk
Smoking & Cancer Stage at Diagnosis
Cancer Research, 4/02
Reuters Health, 4/12/02
QUIT NOW-it can be done!
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers
Am J Clin Nutr, 1/03
Antioxidants:Vit C/E & Female Smokers
AACR Abstract #3990, 2003
J Clin Oncology, 4/03
QUIT SMOKING NOW
Smoking/RTx & Lung Ca in Breast Ca Survivors
Nutrition & Cancer, 6/03
AACR Abstract #4803,2003
Smoking Outside Still Dangerous to Others
Ca-Causing Chemicals from Tobacco Smoke: Infant Urine
Eur J Cancer Care, 9/03
Cancer Epi Biomarkers & Prevent, 3/04
Call (301)451-5048 for information
Abstract # 6151
LINK to site on fire -specifically
on secondhand smoke
J Addiction, 6/05
Euro J Cancer Prevention, 6/05
Preventive Medicine, 5/06
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