Modest Salt Reduction Reduces Blood Pressure and Urine Protein Excretion in Black Hypertensives
A Randomized Control Trial
Pauline A. Swift; Nirmala D. Markandu; Giuseppe A. Sagnella; Feng J. He; Graham A. MacGregor
From the St. George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK.
Correspondence to Pauline A. Swift, Blood Pressure Unit, St. George’s Hospital Medical School, London, SW17 0RE, UK. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
High blood pressure and proteinuria are the major risk factors for cardiovascular and renal disease. In black individuals, there is an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure, and kidney disease.
There are no controlled studies of the effects of reducing salt intake on blood pressure and urine protein excretion in black individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of modest salt restriction on blood pressure and urine protein excretion in nondiabetic black hypertensive subjects.
The study was randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled. After run-in periods on their usual diet and on reduced salt, participants continued to restrict their salt intake and then received either slow sodium tablets, designed to bring their salt intake back to normal, or placebo tablets for 4 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.
In the 40 who completed the study, urinary sodium excretion fell on slow sodium to placebo from 169±73 to 89±52 mmol per 24 hours (P<0.001; 10 to 5 g salt per day). Blood pressure fell from 159/101±13/8 to 151/98±13/8 mm Hg (P<0.01). Protein excretion fell from 93±48 mg to 75±30 mg per 24 hours (P<0.008).
Thus, reducing salt intake from 10 to 5 g per day reduced blood pressure and urine protein excretion in black hypertensives. In light of these findings, we would recommend that all black individuals with raised blood pressure reduce their salt intake to 5 g per day.
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