In vitro evidence: Effect High Homeopathic Potencies

The in vitro evidence for an effect of high homeopathic potencies—A systematic review of the literature

Claudia M. Witta, Michael Bluthb, Henning Albrechtc, Thorolf E.R. Weißhuhna, Stephan Baumgartnerd and Stefan N. Willicha

aInstitute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, D-10098 Berlin, Germany bKlinik für Tumorbiologie, D-Freiburg/Br, Germany cKarl and Veronica Carstens-Foundation, D-Essen, Germany dInstitute for Complementary Medicine (KIKOM), University of Bern, CH-Bern, Germany

Referred to by: The in vitro evidence for an effect of high homeopathic potencies—A systematic review of the literature



Systematic assessment of the in vitro research on high potency effects.


Publications of experiments were collected through databases, experts, previous reviews, citation tracking. Inclusion criteria: stepwise agitated dilutions <10−23; cells or molecules from human or animal. Experiments were assessed with the modified SAPEH score.


From 75 publications, 67 experiments (1/3 of them replications) were evaluated. Nearly 3/4 of them found a high potency effect, and 2/3 of those 18 that scored 6 points or more and controlled contamination. Nearly 3/4 of all replications were positive.

Design and experimental models of the reviewed experiments were inhomogenous, most were performed on basophiles.


Even experiments with a high methodological standard could demonstrate an effect of high potencies. No positive result was stable enough to be reproduced by all investigators.

A general adoption of succussed controls, randomization and blinding would strengthen the evidence of future experiments.

Complementary Therapies in Medicine, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 21 May 2007,

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