Dairy foods and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Montevideo, Uruguay
A L Ronco; E De Stéfani; R Dáttoli
In order to investigate possible associations of milk and dairy products and the risk of breast cancer (BC) in Montevideo, the authors performed a case-control study in the period 1999-2001.
A total of 333 women were interviewed with a specific questionnaire; 111 of them had been diagnosed with BC and 222 were frequency-matched healthy women, with a recent normal mammography (BIRADS 1).
The questionnaire included a detailed 120-item food-frequency section, as well as questions related to socio-demographic, reproductive, familial, medical and lifestyle variables. There was particular emphasis on types of milk and dairy products.
After controlling for age, years of urban status, education, body mass index, age at menarche, menopausal status, family history of BC, number of childbirths, total energy and total fruits, a multivariate analysis found that high intakes of whole milk, chocolate milk and Gruyère cheese were associated with significant increased risk of BC, whereas ricotta cheese and skim yoghurt were associated with significant decreased risks.
Low-fat and fermented products combined appear to be the most protective dairy foods.
The results suggest that separate analyses for types of milk and cheese, as well as for dairy products in general should be performed in the future.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2002; 11(5):457-463
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